A bacterium likely to reduce the cardiovascular risks of 1 in 2 people


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Recently an article in nature noticed a bacteria that helps humans. ….

Science daily summarized the results here

“Scientists conducted the first pilot study in humans to observe the impact of the bacterium Akkermansia. Results: the bacterium limits the increase of several risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, moderates the progression of pre-diabetes and reduces cholesterol levels in humans. A major discovery since one in two individuals is overweight and cardiovascular risk factors”

The original article is here


Supplementation with Akkermansia muciniphila in overweight and obese human volunteers: a proof-of-concept exploratory study

“After three months of supplementation, A. muciniphila reduced the levels of the relevant blood markers for liver dysfunction and inflammation while the overall gut microbiome structure was unaffected. In conclusion, this proof-of-concept study (clinical trial no. NCT02637115) shows that the intervention was safe and well tolerated and that supplementation with A. muciniphila improves several metabolic parameters.”

Wikipedia has this to say on earlier experiments… If you dig deep into the Wikipedia article you fine A M flourished in high fat diets, but only some kinds; really well in fish oil, but only some times in that of lard. You can make it flourish by seeding the intestine with AM (hard to do for us) or giving it something to eat (pre biotic). (DS, by its nature, makes for a high fat diet in the large intestine)


“ The healthier subjects were those with high A. muciniphila abundance and gut microbial richness. In addition, this study showed that having higher abundance of A. muciniphila at baseline was associated with greater clinical benefits after weight loss.[6]

Since it is not available in supplements, you can help it along with prebiotics… The folks at reddit have figured out a few: oligofructose, metformin, polyphenols, and beans.


Everard et al, 2013. Cross-talk between Akkermansia muciniphila and intestinal epithelium controls diet-induced obesity. PNAS, 110(22), pp.9066-9071.

We recently discovered that the administration of prebiotics (oligofructose) to genetically obese mice increased the abundance of A. muciniphila by ∼100-fold

Shin NR et al. 2013. An increase in the Akkermansia spp. population induced by metformin treatment improves glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese mice. Gut, gutjnl-2012.

metformin significantly increased the relative abundance of Akkermansia in HFD-Met mice

Anhê et al. 2015. A polyphenol-rich cranberry extract protects from diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance and intestinal inflammation in association with increased Akkermansia spp. population in the gut microbiota of mice. Gut, 64(6), 872-883.

Beneficial effects of cranberry extract treatment on metabolic phenotypes were associated with a robust modulation in the relative abundance of Akkermansia spp., as suggested by the higher representation (30%) of reads assigned to this genus in cranberry extract metagenome at week 9 in comparison with week 1.

Monk et al, 2016. Navy bean supplementation in obesity increases Akkermansia muciniphila abundance and attenuates obesity related impairments in gut barrier function. The FASEB Journal, 30(1 Supplement), pp.421-2.

Fecal abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, whose abundance is inversely related to the severity of the obese phenotype, was increased in the high fat + bean diet group versus high fat diet by 20-fold


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Here is a good readable summary of what you can do to increase AM

Again, the thing that catches my eye most, is DSer will have a high fat content in the large intestine, so strategies to increase Akkermansia muciniphila. The reason is, increase AM and you decrease lots of bad things that can go wrong


"We have carefully examined a total of 24 the up-to-date available dietary intervention studies in search for evidence and strategies to increase A. muciniphila, a beneficial member of gut microbiota in the gut. Available evidence from animal studies showed that viable A. muciniphila or prebiotics (FOS) was able to consistently promote A. muciniphila abundance in the gut, suggesting a great potential for future development of dietary intervention approaches using viable bacterium or FOS for increasing gut A. muciniphila. Supplementation of B. animalis could also increase A. muciniphila by producing SCFA and facilitating mucin growth to feed the bacterium. Metformin and antibiotics treatment (vancomycin) also significantly promote A. muciniphila abundance in the gut but these strategies are not suitable for general public. Rhubarb extract is promising but more research is needed to confirm its activity and another concern about Rhubarb is that it is not a typical dietary ingredient. Dietary polyphenols are inconsistent, cranberry extract and Concord grape polyphenols are active but green tea and whole grape showed no effect. The inconsistency may be related to their difference in polyphenol profile but to identify the active polyphenols is challenging due to their abundance and diversity in the extract. It should also be noted that to maintain A. muciniphila abundance in the gut one may want to avoid high-fat diet and heavy alcohol consumption, though the results were based on the measurement of relative abundance of gut microbials.